King of Fruits - Mango

The King of all the fruits, Mango, is so tasty that every kid can eat it without fuss in many forms. It is one of the most popular fruit among people. It belongs to the flowering plant family Anacardiaceae.  It is one of the delicious tropical seasonal fruit and believed to be originated in the sub-Himalayan plains of Indian subcontinent. Its Scientific name is Mangifera Indica. The mango is a member of the drupe family, a type of plant food in which an outer fleshy part surrounds a shell (what we sometimes call a pit) with a seed inside. Olives, dates and coconuts are also types of drupes.It is the national fruit of India, Pakistan and the Phillipines and the national tree of Bangladesh. India is the world's largest producer of mangoes. It has been estimated that there are over 1000 commercial varieties in India, where mangos are often called the "king of fruits".

Mango trees are deep-rooted, symmetrical evergreens that attain heights of 35–40 m (115–131 ft) tall. They are large trees and should be planted 35 to 40 feet apart. Mango trees have simple alternate lanceolate leaves that are 12 to 16 inches in length and yellow-green, purple, or copper in color when young. Mature leaves are leathery, glossy, and deep green in color. New leaves arise in terminal growth flushes that occur several times a year.

Mature terminal branches bear pyramidal flower panicles that have several hundred white flowers that are about a 1/4 inch wide when open. Most of the flowers function as males by providing pollen, but some are bisexual and set fruit. Pollination is by flies, wasps, and bees. Mango trees produce many flowers, not all of those flowers will produce fruit. Flowers may develop on different parts of a tree at different times. Mango trees differ from other fruit trees because flowers don't require bees for pollination. A host of other insects and fruit bats pollinate mango flowers. The typical pattern of flower production is that 75 percent of the flowers are capable of self-pollinating because the flower has both female and male parts, and 25 percent of the flowers are all male. Flowering may occur any time between December and March, depending on the growing area and weather conditions. 

The fruit weighs about 1/4 pound to 3 pounds. Fruit may be round, ovate, or obovate depending on the variety. The immature fruit has green skin that gradually turns yellow, orange, purple, red, or combinations of these colors as the fruit matures. Mature fruit has a characteristic fragrance and a smooth, thin, tough skin. The flesh of ripe mangos is pale yellow to orange. The flesh is juicy, sweet, and sometimes fibrous. Some undesirable seedlings or varieties are described as possessing a turpentine-like off-taste. The fruit has one seed that is flattened and sticks to the flesh. The seed contains one or more embryos depending on the variety or type. Mango can be eaten raw as a dessert fruit or processed to various products. Ripe fruits can be sliced and canned or processed to juice, jams, jellies, nectars and preserves. Eastern and Asian cultures use unripe mangos for pickles, chutney and relishes. In India, unripe mangos are sliced, dried, and made into powder for amchoor, a traditional Indian preparation used for cooking.
In India, flour is made from mango seeds. Seeds are also eaten during periods of food shortages. The timber is used for boats, flooring, furniture and other applications. 

Mangos can be grown on a wide range of soil types, from light sandy loams to red clay soils. Deep rich soils give the best production and fruit quality. Dry weather during the flowering period is best for fruit production. Wind can damage flowers and reduce yields. Mango trees should be protected from strong winds, but windbreaks that shade or compete with them should be avoided. 

The time it takes for mango trees to produce mature, harvest-ready fruit from the time of flowering ranges from 100 to 150 days, depending on the cultivar, growing region and various weather factors. After flowers are pollinated, fruit begins to develop. Fruit varies according to cultivar variety and growing location. Mango skin may be greenish-yellow or orange-red. Flavor also varies between acidic and sweet. Compared to the number of flowers a tree produces, the actual number of fruits that develop and mature to harvest is very small. Most varieties bear fruit between May and September. Fruit production is heaviest during June and July.

Mango is a marvelous fruit. It has many health and nutritional benefits. I have extracted this chart which was passed on to me in my e-mail by a pediatric nutritionist and the website is fruits info. I found it good so I am sharing it with all of you. 

Minerals:
Nutrient
Amounts/Selected Serving
DV%
Calcium
16.5mg
2%
Iron
0.2mg
1%
Magnesium
14.8mg
4%
Phosphorus
18.2mg
2%
Potassium
257mg
7%
Sodium
3.3mg 
0%
Zinc
0.1mg
0%
Copper
0.2mg
9%
Manganese
0.0mg
2%
Selenium
1.0mcg
1%
Fluoride
~
Calorie Information:
Nutrients
Amounts/Selected Serving
DV%
TotalCalories
107(448 kJ)  
5%
Carbs
101(423 kJ)
 
Fat
3.7(15.5 kJ)
 
Protein
2.8(11.7 kJ)
 
Alcohol
0.0(0.0 kJ)
 
Sterols:
Nutrients
Amounts/Selected Serving
DV%
Cholesterol
0.0mg
0%
Phytosterols
~
~
Fat & Fatty Acid
Nutrients
Amounts/Selected Serving
DV%
Fat
0.4g
1%
Saturated Fat
01g
1%
Monounsaturated fat
0.2g
Polysaturated Fat
0.1g
trans fatty acids
0.0mg
transmonoenoicfattyacids
0.0mg
trans-polyenoicfattyacids
0.0mg
Omega-3 fatty acids
61.1mg
Omega-6 fatty acids
23.1mg
Vitamins:
Nutrient
Amounts/Selected Serving
DV%
Vitamin A
1262 IU
25%
Vitamin B6
60.1 mgmg
11%
Vitamin B12
120.0 mcg
0%
Vitamin C
45.7 mg
76%
Vitamin D
~
~
Vitamin D3
0.0mg
Vitamin E
1.8 mg
9%
Vitamin K
6.9 mcg
9%
Thiamin
0.1 mg
6%
Riboflavin
0.1mg
6%
Niacin
1.0 mg
5%
Pantothenic
0.3 mg
3%
Choline
12.5 mg
Betaine
~
Folate
23.1 mcg
6%
Carbohydrates:
Nutrients
Amounts/Selected Serving
DV%
carbohydrates
28.1g
9%
Dietary Fiber
3.0g
12%
Starch
~
Sugars
24.4g
Protein & Amino Acids:
Nutrients
Amounts/Selected Serving
DV%
Protein
0.8g
2%
Others:
Nutrients
Amounts/Selected Serving
DV%
Alcohol
0g
Water
135g
Ash
0.8g  
Caffeine
0.0mg
Theobromine
0.0mg

Mango contain over 20 vitamins and minerals. Consuming this delicious fruits has many health benefits like a decreased risk of macular degeneration, a decreased risk of colon cancer, improvement in digestion and bone health and even benefits for the skin and hair. 
One cup of diced mango contains 100 calories, 1 gram protein, 0.5 grams fat, 25 grams of carbohydrate (23 grams of sugar and 3 grams of fiber), 100% of the daily need for vitamin C, 35% for vitamin A, 20% of folate, 10% of vitamin B-6 and 8% of vitamin K and potassium. Mangoes also contribute copper, calcium and iron to the diet as well as antioxidants such as zeaxanthin and beta-carotene. Mangoes are great natural remedies for high blood pressure patients.
Many studies have suggested that increasing consumption of plant foods like mangoes decreases the risk of obesity and overall mortality, diabetes, heart disease and promotes a healthy complexion and hair, increased energy, overall lower weight. It has high level of vitamin C, pectin and fibres that help to lower serum cholesterol levels. Fresh mango is a rich source of potassium, which is an important component of cell and body fluids that helps to control heart rate and blood pressure. Mangoes are a great source of vitamin E . The vitamin E content in mangoes can even help to boost your sex life by triggering the activity of your sex hormones.They also help you unclog your pores and add freshness to the face. Mangoes are applicable to any skin type. They help clear clogged pores that cause acne. Just slice a mango into thin pieces and keep them on your face for 10 to 15 minutes and then take bath or wash your face and see the results. 
Mangoes play a prominent role in eliminating problems such as indigestion and excess acidity. The digestive enzymes in mangoes help to promote natural, efficient digestion. The bioactive ingredients in mangoes like esters, terpenes and aldehydes contribute in enhancing appetite and also improve the function of the digestive system.
Mangoes are rich in iron, which makes them beneficial for people suffering from anemia. A regular, moderated intake of mangoes can help eliminate anemia by increasing the red blood cell count in the body. Mangoes are also very beneficial for pregnant woman, since the iron requirements during pregnant is extremely essential. Doctors often prescribe iron tablets during pregnancy, but instead of supplementation, you can enjoy a healthy iron-rich diet with juicy mangoes. The taste buds during pregnancy usually lose some of their sensitivity, so mangoes will surely prove to be the delight of your day, for more than just its health benefits.
It composes moderate amounts of copperCopper is also required for the production of red blood cells. 
Mangoes have abundant quantities of vitamin B-6, which is vital for maintaining and improving the brain’s function. These vitamins aid in the amalgamation of the major neurotransmitters that contributes in determining mood and the modification of sleeping patterns.

Refrences taken from :- Zomato, Wikipedia, Homeguide, Nutrition and you and fruits and veggies.

(all the pictures are extracted from internet)

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